Biofabrication of 3D printed hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone regeneration
Yoontae Kim(1), Eun-Jin Lee(1), Albert V. Davydov(2), Stanislav Frukhbeyen(1), Jonathan E. Seppala(3), Shozo Takagi(1), Laurence Chow(1) and Stella Alimperti(1)
Biofabrication has been adapted in engineering patient-specific biosynthetic grafts for bone regeneration. Herein, we developed a 3D high-resolution, room-temperature printing approach to fabricate osteoconductive scaffolds using calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The non-aqueous CPC bioinks were composed of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), and Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) dissolved in either ethanol (EtOH) or Tetrahydrofuran (THF). They were printed in an aqueous sodium phosphate bath, which performs as a hardening accelerator for hydroxyapatite (HA) formation and as a retainer for 3D microstructure. The PVB solvents, EtOH or THF, affected differently the slurry rheological properties, scaffold microstructure, mechanical properties, and osteoconductivity...