Surface-Modified Industrial Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 3D Scaffold Fabrication by Gold Nanoparticle for Drug Screening
Kaudjhis Patrick Ulrich N’deh 1,2,†, Gyeong-Ji Kim 2,3,†, Kang-Hyun Chung 1, Jae-Soo Shin 4, Kwang-Sup Lee 5, Jeong-Woo Choi 3,6, Kwon-Jai Lee 7,* and Jeung Hee An 2,*
Biocompatibility is very important for cell growth using 3D printers, but biocompatibility materials are very expensive. In this study, we investigated the possibility of cell culture by the surface modification of relatively low-cost industrial materials and an efficient three-dimensional (3D) scaffold made with an industrial ABS filament for cell proliferation, spheroid formation, and drug screening applications. We evaluated the adequate structure among two-layer square shape 3D scaffolds printed by fused deposition modeling with variable infill densities (10–50%). Based on the effects of these scaffolds on cell proliferation and spheroid formation, we conducted experiments using the industrial ABS 3D scaffold (IA3D) with 40% of infill density, which presented an external dimension of (XYZ) 7650 µm × 7647 µm × 210 µm, 29.8% porosity, and 225 homogenous micropores (251.6 µm × 245.9 µm × 210 µm). In the IA3D, spheroids of cancer HepG2 cells and keratinocytes HaCaT cells appeared after 2 and 3 days of culture, respectively, whereas no spheroids were formed in 2D culture. A gold nanoparticle-coated industrial ABS 3D scaffold (GIA3D) exhibited enhanced biocompatible properties including increased spheroid formation by HepG2 cells compared to IA3D (1.3-fold) and 2D (38-fold) cultures. Furthermore, the cancer cells exhibited increased resistance to drug treatments in GIA3D, with cell viabilities of 122.9% in industrial GIA3D, 40.2% in IA3D, and 55.2% in 2D cultures when treated with 100 µM of mitoxantrone. Our results show that the newly engineered IA3D is an innovative 3D scaffold with upgraded properties for cell proliferation, spheroid formation, and drug-screening applications.