The effects of moisture and temperature on the mechanical properties of additive manufacturing components: fused deposition modeling
Eunseob Kim, Yong-Jun Shin, Sung-Hoon Ahn
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the water absorption behaviors and mechanical properties, according to water absorption and temperature, of components fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) and injection molding. The mechanical properties of FDM and injection molded parts were studied under several environmental conditions. Design/methodology/approach FDM components can be used as load-carrying elements under a range of moisture and temperature conditions. FDM parts show anisotropic mechanical properties according to build orientation. Components were fabricated from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene in three different orientations. The mechanical properties of parts fabricated by FDM were compared to injection molded components made from the same material. Water absorption tests were conducted in distilled water between 20 and 60°C to identify the maximum water absorption rate. Both moisture and temperature were considered as environmental variables in the tensile tests, which were conducted under various conditions to measure the effects on mechanical properties. Findings The water absorption behavior of FDM components obeyed Fickian diffusion theory, irrespective of the temperature. High temperatures accelerated the diffusion rate, although the maximum water absorption rate was not affected. The tensile strength of FDM parts under dry, room temperature conditions, was approximately 26-56 per cent that of injection molded parts, depending on build orientation. Increased temperature and water absorption had a more significant effect on FDM parts than injection molded components. The tensile strength was decreased by 67-71 per cent in hot, wet environments compared with dry, room temperature conditions. Originality/value The water absorption behavior of FDM components was investigated. The quantitative effects of temperature and moisture on tensile strength, modulus and strain were also measured. These results will contribute to the design of FDM parts for use under various environmental conditions.