November 30, 2020 by admin 0 Comments

Biofabrication of 3D printed hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone regeneration

Authors
Yoontae Kim(1), Eun-Jin Lee(1), Albert V. Davydov(2), Stanislav Frukhbeyen(1), Jonathan E. Seppala(3), Shozo Takagi(1), Laurence Chow(1) and Stella Alimperti(1)
Abstract
Biofabrication has been adapted in engineering patient-specific biosynthetic grafts for bone regeneration. Herein, we developed a 3D high-resolution, room-temperature printing approach to fabricate osteoconductive scaffolds using calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The non-aqueous CPC bioinks were composed of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), and Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) dissolved in either ethanol (EtOH) or Tetrahydrofuran (THF). They were printed in an aqueous sodium phosphate bath, which performs as a hardening accelerator for hydroxyapatite (HA) formation and as a retainer for 3D microstructure. The PVB solvents, EtOH or THF, affected differently the slurry rheological properties, scaffold microstructure, mechanical properties, and osteoconductivity...

January 1, 2019 by admin 0 Comments

Additive Manufacturing of Polyaryletherketones

Authors
Manuel Garcia-Leiner Ph.D. *, Oana Ghita †, Robert McKay M.B.A., M.S.F. ‡, Steven M. Kurtz Ph.D. §
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM), otherwise known as three-dimensional printing (3DP), is a growing technology area comprising a spectrum of processes that allow production of solid objects of virtually any shape from information obtained from a digital object. These days, AM processes drive major innovations in engineering, manufacturing, art, education, and medicine. However, most AM processes are not necessarily new. Introduced commercially in the 1990s mainly through prototyping efforts for the manufacture of complex metal parts, AM processes have almost a 30-year history for plastics, and have driven the development of multiple commercial products through manufacturing techniques ranging from stereo-lithography to laser-based powder fusion processes. A growing number of polymeric resins intended for AM have become available in recent times due to developments of new processes and technological advancements. Of these, high-performance thermoplastics such as the polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) are perhaps the most promising candidates for demanding engineering applications. Polymers such as polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), and polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK), could revolutionize and enable the use of additively manufactured plastic parts in critical environments. However, despite their similarity in terms of chemistry and composition, commercially available PAEK resins show varying physical properties due to their molecular size-dependent structural differences that make them function differently in common AM processes. This chapter describes some of the advancements and opportunities for PAEK polymers in AM processes, as well as the relationships between structure and property and the morphological changes observed in these materials when subjected to conditions typically found in common AM processes.

May 29, 2018 by admin 0 Comments

Emerging Business Models Toward Commercialization of Bioprinting Technology

Authors
Yakov M. Balakhovsky, Alexander Yu. Ostrovskiy, Yusef D. Khesuani
Abstract
After breaking out from the confines of purely academic research, 3D bioprinting technology is quickly developing as a commercial industry and exhibiting the qualities of a mature market with immense potential. We are currently witnessing not only growth in the number of companies and their geographical reach, but also the market’s segmentation. The main models of 3D bioprinting technology commercialization seem to be selling bioprinters and bioinks, services of bioprinting 3D functional tissue constructs – including for drug discovery and disease modeling – selling software, and technological consulting. As the industry advances, so does the legal regulation of the relevant issues. A number of companies are already successfully monetizing the technology and are able to raise financing through various paths. In the near future, we should expect the start of industry consolidation. At this stage of the technology development, rivalries within the industry do not represent a significant threat. The industry is currently characterized by stakeholders joining efforts in order to expedite its advancement and reach the commercial application stage. To accomplish this, the industry must overcome a number of significant hurdles, including achieving the standardization of bioprinting methods, software, and materials.